Mustafa Golubić (1889-1941)
, an obscure and controversial figure, "Red James Bond", was a Bosnian Muslim, a Serbian nationalist and patriot and war hero, and a Soviet communist NKVD secret agent, a man with a 100 names and 250 passports who spoke 14 different languages.
He was born into a middle-class Muslim family in Herzegovina. After the Austro-Hungarian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina from the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1908, he joined the Bosnian revolutionary youth organization called the Young Bosnia, and his family moved into the Kingdom of Serbia. When the First Balkan War for liberation of the Balkan peoples from Turkey begun in 1912, he joined the Serbian Chetnik guerilla detachment, distinguished himself in battles against the Turks, wrote war articles for several different magazines, gained the military rank of Sergeant, and was awarded the medal for bravery personally by the heir to the throne, Alexander. He begun his studies of technical sciences and law in Belgrade in 1913, and in 1914, as one of the best students, he was granted a scholarship from the government to go to study in Switzerland. There, he met various Russian communist dissidents, including Lenin, and started to work for the Comintern. While in Paris that year, he joined the secret organization of Serbian officers called the Black Hand, which was related to Young Bosnia, and later assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir to the throne Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914. When the First World War broke out, he quit his studies, went back home to join the military once again, and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant. He was then sent to Russia in 1915 to gather volunteers for the Balkan Front, and he brought back 3,500 people with him. It is assumed that at that time he started working for the Russian intelligence service, Okhrana. He survived the retreat of the Serbian army over Albania in 1916. The next year, the Black Hand found itself under a trial for creating a plot to assassinate the Serbian heir to the throne, future King Alexander of Yugoslavia. Golubić refused to testify against the other members of the organization, was sentenced one year of exile to France for being a member, and was expelled from the military service shortly after. He and his fellows who were not shot after their trial vowed then to avenge the deaths of their companions.Mustafa Golubić during the Balkan Wars of 1912-13, seen second from the left in the mid row.
In 1921, he was arrested once again, for participating in the unsuccessful communist attempt to assassinate King Alexander. After a short time in prison, he moved to Vienna in 1922, where he became a member of the illegal Communist Party of Yugoslavia, and was participating in issuing of a communist newspapers. While in Vienna, he has been arrested four times by demand from Yugoslav government, and then expelled to Berlin. There, he became a member of the communist Red Help organization. In 1930, he participated in the kidnapping of the White Russian general Kutepov in Paris, a leader of the anticommunist Volunteer Army during the Russian Civil War. In the beginning of 1930s, he moves to Moscow, becomes an NKVD secret agent, and starts working for the fourth department of the GPU, known as The Red Orchestra, a political police, which main task was removing of Stalin's opponents in the Comintern. He becomes one of the Stalin's rare close personal trusted friends, being allowed to enter the Kremlin at any time without any check. Working as a Soviet secret agent, he travelled half the world under different false identities - Russia, China, Japan, United States, Mexico - while Vienna, Moscow, Prague, Paris, London, Berlin, were basically his hometowns.
In 1934-35, he moved to Canada, from where he conducted Soviet secret operations towards the United States and Mexico. While in New York, he managed to kidnap a Soviet double agent who started cooperating with the American intelligence agencies, and successfully organize his transport to Moscow. The whole FBI was after him, but he managed to escape the United States and safely travel back to Europe. He went to participate in the Spanish Civil War in 1937, and was then sent to Paris to investigate Trotskyists among the Yugoslav communists. He travels to Mexico, where he participates in the assassination of Leon Trotsky in 1940, being able to discover his location by seducing the painter Frida Kahlo who was also a Trotsky's lover, when he moved into a hotel room two streets away from the Trotsky's house, observing him.
Back at his home country, he participates in the military coup of the March 27th 1941, when the Royal Yugoslav government was overthrown for signing the Tripartite Pact with Germany two days before. The coup was organized by the British and the Soviet intelligence, although the contract which the Yugoslav government signed with Hitler was actually very good for the people and in reality provided a neutrality for the country in the war. In June, he participates in the horrific blowing up of the fortress in the town of Smederevo commited by the communists, where the Germans have collected captured ammunition from the defeated Yugoslav army before, when the explosion destroyed almost the entire town, killing 2,500 civilians. Only two days later, he was arrested by the Gestapo. It is believed that the leader of the Yugoslav Communist Party, Josip Broz Tito, has revealed Mustafa Golubić's location to the Gestapo, because Stalin has ordered Mustafa Golubić to assassinate Tito, and to support General Draža Mihailović's Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland resistance movement against the Germans, instead of the Tito's communist partisans. The Gestapo has tortured him for days, breaking every bone in his body, but he still refused to give them any information they wanted, so they finally shot him in a park, and burried him there. In 1944, his grave was excavated by the Soviet Red Army, his body was then sent to Moscow, and buried with the highest military honors, and he was declared a national hero of the Soviet Union.